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Why London Is My Favourite City To Photograph At Night

The Rise of Mirrorless Cameras: Revolutionizing the World of Photography

The photography industry has witnessed a remarkable evolution over the years, with the continuous advancements in camera technology. One such significant development is the rise of mirrorless cameras, which have rapidly gained popularity and transformed the way photographers capture images. In this article, we will take a closer look at the history of mirrorless cameras, their advantages and disadvantages, and why they have become a game-changer in the world of photography.

A Short History of Mirrorless Cameras

Mirrorless cameras, also known as compact system cameras (CSCs), emerged as a breakthrough innovation that eliminated the need for a mirror mechanism found in traditional single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras. This removal of the mirror allowed for smaller, lighter, and more portable camera bodies without compromising image quality.

The concept of mirrorless cameras dates back to the early 2000s when manufacturers started experimenting with interchangeable lenses and electronic viewfinders. However, it wasn’t until around 2008 when the technology truly took off with the introduction of the world’s first mirrorless camera, the Panasonic Lumix DMC-G1. Since then, numerous camera manufacturers, including Sony, Fujifilm, Olympus, and Canon, have embraced mirrorless technology and developed their own models.

The Advantages of Mirrorless Cameras

Mirrorless cameras offer several key advantages over their DSLR counterparts, making them an attractive choice for both professional photographers and enthusiasts alike.

Compact and Lightweight

One of the most obvious benefits of mirrorless cameras is their smaller size and lighter weight. Without the mirror box and optical viewfinder found in DSLRs, mirrorless cameras are more portable and convenient to carry around, especially during travel or outdoor shoots. This advantage is particularly significant for photographers who prioritize mobility and wish to avoid the bulkiness associated with DSLR systems.

Electronic Viewfinder and Live View

Unlike DSLRs, which rely on an optical viewfinder using a mirror and prism system, mirrorless cameras incorporate electronic viewfinders (EVFs) or high-resolution LCD screens for composing shots. EVFs offer real-time previewing of exposure, white balance, depth of field, and other settings, providing a more accurate representation of the final image. Additionally, the availability of live view on the rear LCD screen allows for seamless image composition, with the ability to preview the impact of various adjustments on the image before taking the shot.

Fast and Accurate Autofocus

Mirrorless cameras utilize advanced autofocus systems, often based on contrast detection or hybrid systems combining phase detection and contrast detection. These autofocus mechanisms offer fast and precise focusing, making mirrorless cameras well-suited for capturing moving subjects or in challenging lighting conditions. The ability to track subjects accurately is especially beneficial for sports, wildlife, and street photography.

The Disadvantages of Mirrorless Cameras

While mirrorless cameras come with numerous advantages, it is important to consider their limitations as well.

Battery Life

Due to the continual operation of the electronic viewfinder or LCD screen, mirrorless cameras tend to consume more power than DSLRs. This results in comparatively shorter battery life, requiring photographers to carry spare batteries or use power-saving techniques during extended shooting sessions. However, advancements in battery technology have mitigated this issue to some extent, and newer mirrorless camera models are offering improved battery performance.

Limited Lens Selection

Although lens options for mirrorless cameras have greatly expanded in recent years, they may still have a more limited selection compared to DSLR systems. This can be a potential drawback for photographers who rely on specific lenses for their creative vision or specialized genres like macro or tilt-shift photography. Nevertheless, camera manufacturers continually introduce new lenses to address this limitation, making it less of an issue with time.

The Future of Mirrorless Cameras

With the rapid advancements in technology and the growing popularity of mirrorless cameras, it is safe to say that they will play an increasingly significant role in the future of photography. As more photographers recognize the advantages offered by these compact yet powerful devices, camera manufacturers are likely to invest further in research and development, resulting in even more innovative features and improved performance.

The rise of mirrorless cameras has undoubtedly revolutionized the world of photography by challenging the dominance of DSLRs and offering a compelling alternative. Their smaller size, lighter weight, advanced features, and expanding lens options make mirrorless cameras a formidable choice for professional photographers and enthusiasts seeking high-quality images in a more portable package. As technology continues to advance, mirrorless cameras will continue to push the boundaries of what is possible in the world of photography.

Why React.js?

React.js, also known as React, is an open-source JavaScript library that is widely used in web development. Developed and maintained by Facebook, React has gained immense popularity since its release in 2013. In this blog post, we will explore why people use React, its popularity, and its use cases.

Why people use React?

React is used by developers all around the world for various reasons. Here are a few reasons why React is so popular:

  1. Virtual DOM React uses a virtual DOM (Document Object Model) which is a lightweight copy of the actual DOM. The virtual DOM updates the changes made in the user interface without affecting the entire web page. This means that the performance of the web page is enhanced and it loads faster.
  2. Component-based Architecture React has a component-based architecture which means that the user interface is divided into small, reusable components. This makes it easier for developers to build and maintain complex applications. Components can be reused across different projects, making the development process faster and more efficient.
  3. JSX JSX is a syntax extension for JavaScript that allows developers to write HTML-like code inside the JavaScript code. This makes the code more readable and easier to understand. JSX also enables developers to use all the features of JavaScript, making it easier to integrate with other libraries.
  4. Large Community React has a large community of developers who contribute to its development and share their knowledge and expertise. The community provides support and guidance to developers who are new to React, making it easier for them to learn and use the library.

Why is React popular?

React has become one of the most popular JavaScript libraries due to its many benefits. Here are a few reasons why React is so popular:

  1. Faster Development React allows developers to build applications faster and more efficiently. The component-based architecture and virtual DOM make it easier to develop and maintain complex applications. React also has a large library of pre-built components, making it easier to create user interfaces.
  2. Reusability React’s component-based architecture allows developers to reuse components across different projects. This saves time and effort as developers don’t have to rewrite the same code over and over again.
  3. Scalability React is highly scalable and can be used to build large applications. The virtual DOM and component-based architecture make it easier to manage complex applications.
  4. Flexibility React is highly flexible and can be used with different back-end technologies. It can be integrated with other libraries and frameworks, making it a versatile tool for web development.

Use cases of React

React can be used in a wide range of applications. Here are a few use cases of React:

  1. Web Applications React is commonly used to build web applications. Its virtual DOM and component-based architecture make it easy to create complex web applications.
  2. Mobile Applications React can also be used to build mobile applications using React Native. React Native allows developers to build cross-platform mobile applications using the same codebase.
  3. Single-Page Applications React is ideal for building single-page applications (SPAs) that require a fast and responsive user interface. SPAs load quickly and don’t require the user to reload the page every time they interact with it.
  4. E-commerce Websites React is widely used in e-commerce websites as it allows developers to build complex user interfaces with ease. React also makes it easier to manage large amounts of data.

Conclusion

In conclusion, React is a highly useful tool for front-end developers looking to create complex, dynamic user interfaces for their web and mobile applications. Its many benefits make it a popular choice in the industry, and its ease of use and flexibility make it an excellent choice for both small and large-scale projects. As the technology continues to evolve, it is likely that React will remain an essential tool in the web development toolbox for years to come.

Epping Forest

Epping Forest

Just twenty minutes on the overground, I find myself in Epping forest.

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VR Photography Software

I’ve fully entered into the foray of VR 360 photography. I’ve been shooting on my Pixel 4a5g, using the photosphere feature to stitch photos together. This method, despite it being an inbuilt feature of my phone, proved very effective. During the lockdown, I managed to get some fantastic photos of places that, ordinarily, would be full of people. Places like museums, galleries, parks and streets. It really was a unique time. My favourite shots came from the Victoria and Albert Design museum.

Using my phone, although effective, took time and precision. I have to stand very still whilst the phone maps a 360 environment onto my phone using rectangles. Each rectangle would be blank until I lined my phone up with the middle of the rectangle when it would then automatically expose and shoot. The automatic exposure was great because it meant that I could have super bright parts of the image and really dark areas and they would both be correctly exposed. Although it did require a few minutes of standing around turning in the spot to capture an entire scene, not good if you’re trying to be discreet!

Using my phone, although effective, took time and precision. I have to stand very still whilst the phone maps a 360 environment onto my phone using rectangles. Each rectangle would be blank until I lined my phone up with the middle of the rectangle when it would then automatically expose and shoot. The automatic exposure was great because it meant that I could have super bright parts of the image and really dark areas and they would both be correctly exposed. Although it did require a few minutes of standing around turning in the spot to capture an entire scene, not good if you’re trying to be discreet!

So in January, I did a fair amount of research and bought the Theta Z1. Theta’s flagship 360 camera model. Usually just shy of £1,000 when bought new, I managed to get mine for less than half of that. It was an ex-display model and has a very tiny paint chip in the body, but nothing that affects its usage. I couldn’t be happier with it. I’ll write more about my experiences with the theta z1 at a later date.

The aim of getting this camera is to make virtual tours. After being inspired by Google arts during the lockdown and seeing some of the amazing things they’ve created which allow people to experience the world from their homes, I knew I wanted to get in on the action. I want to be able to create tours, tell stories and document buildings and places for future generations.

Now I’ve got the camera, I already know how to edit photos (although 360 photo editing requires a slightly different workflow), all I need now is to pick the right software that will build and host my tours. Picking one is no easy task though.

Choosing software is a commitment, make no mistake about it, so it’s important that you understand exactly what you’re paying for before committing. If you’re 12 months into using a tour software and then decide to cancel your subscription, you’re in real danger of losing all the tours you’ve created and having to rebuild them with the new software that you’ve chosen. This is perhaps the biggest dilemma.

Let’s look at 5 different tour providers, the pros and cons of each and then my recommendation at the end of the article.

  • Matterport
  • Panolens
  • Metareal
  • KR Pano
  • Seekbeak

Matterport

Matterport has earned a reputation for being an industry leader in dollhouse creations. Their patented software will render a 3d space that you can view from outside of the space itself. Imagine a photorealistic dollhouse without a roof. You can see all the floors, the furniture, the walls etc, but can walk around the outside, get closer to or further away from, this is one of the big advantages Matterport has over its competitors. The ease of use and collaboration make it a very popular choice amongst 360 photo enthusiasts and professionals. Matterport allows for a wide range of compatible 360 cameras to be used and can even use iPhones to create a 360 space (providing you use their app). The prices start at $0.00 a month for one hosted tour but rise to $69 a month for the professional plan and $309 per month for the business plan. The free option is great if you want to see what features it has and if it’s the right platform for you.
The measurement feature is a really handy tool that really shines in the real estate industry, especially where measurements and floorplans are paramount.
Matterport is great if you’re already into the 360 tour business and are looking to add a professional touch with the dollhouse and the measurement feature can be invaluable. Downsides include a lack of customisation for hotspots, whilst you can embed images, videos and audio, they all need to be attached to a preset hotspot and clicked. This might not be a problem for some, but for those that want a more customised experience, there may be better options.

Pros Cons
Has a free membership option Can get expensive if using it for a hobby
Creates photorealistic dollhouses Lack of customisable hotspots
Measures accurately Requires two tours if there’s an external property such as a garage
Industry leader with great support
Tours can be made with a phone or tablet

Panolens

Okay, so panolens is less of a software and more of a javascript library used for spherical photos and to create tours. This obviously requires you to know some simple coding in order to build the tours in the first place but in return offers you much greater flexibility once you’ve learned the basics. Panolens is built with coders in mind and probably wouldn’t be suitable if you’re planning on doing many tours with many clients. Panolens relies on the three.js framework to work fully, both scripts can be downloaded easily from the panolens website. Being able to add interactive elements to each picture allows for a more immersive storytelling experience, encouraging the user to fully engage with the project rather than being a passive observer, something that can be very powerful if used correctly. In my opinion, the best thing about panolens is that it’s free. Once you’ve downloaded the scripts, you can create, edit and host your tour wherever you want. There are no monthly fees, no fear of your tours being delisted if you decide to swap providers and you have full control over where it’s hosted and by who.

Whilst there are many examples on panolenses website that showcase the possibilities of Panolens, it’s hard to find real use cases to see what people have made out there in the field. The photos don’t seem to render in very high quality and there seems to be a lack of support when it comes to newcomers. It’s hard to find good youtube tutorials (although they do exist) and it’s a really steep learning curve. If you don’t code, then this one isn’t for you.

Pros Cons
Free for life Requires knowledge of Javascript
Can be hosted anywhere Lack of support and user community
Very customisable
Open-source software

Metareal

Metareals big selling point is that they offer to build the tours for you. That’s right, you upload your photos, edited or not, and they do the rest of the hard work for you. Great if you’re not computer savvy or simply don’t have time. This can be very useful if you want to spend the time you would have spent making the tours, growing your business instead. One of my favourite features of this tour provider is the smooth animation from one frame to the next, almost as though you’re walking through. It really adds a professional touch to the tour. Marketed towards people who want fast tours without much context or information. Metareal is much cheaper than its competitors but you can also see why. I think the reason for the low cost of the plans is that if you want someone to build the tour for you, it’s extra. This extra charge enables them to lower the price of the main service.

At this price, you wouldn’t expect a dollhouse feature, but Metareal really delivers. The dollhouses are photorealistic and could even give Matterport a run for its money. Metareal is a decent buy with a free account available and the most expensive account $39 per month, it should be in the price range of most people. But it’s worth noting that whilst it does have the dollhouse feature, it lacks any other kind of feature that you’d expect to see in 360 tour software.

Pros Cons
Metareal will build the tour for you Lack of hotspots
Pretty cheap compared to its competitors Almost no customisation
Dollhouse feature is pretty good Lacks professionalism seen in other tours
Very easy to use
Good for beginners

KR Pano

A real heavyweight. KR Pano occupies a space in between coding and software. Whilst the licences give you everything you need to get yourself up and running, there are many add ons that you’ll soon want, which all come with their own prices attached to them. But this is what gives KR Pano its strength. The user base that’s constantly growing is always contributing new plugins for KR Pano and therefore functionality is limited to only what your imagination can offer. Whilst KR Pano could be seen as the ultimate solution to everything 360 VR tour related, you have to ask yourself if you have the skills and expertise to fully master this software. If you don’t have experience in coding or building tours, maybe this isn’t the one for you, but if you do, and you’re willing to part with $159 for the basic licence, then I’d recommend it. They have a great forum that is in constant use, has great support and are constantly updating. Whatsmore, because it’s open-source, the amount of add ons one can get for it is ever-expanding. They’ve just added 3d depth maps, meaning dollhouses and even walkthroughs (using directional arrows to walk through like a game character rather than clicking into the next area) are now a reality. It really feels like this is where 360 tours are going but, and I must stress, it’s for people who are really tech-savvy, and for those that are, the learning curve is steep.

Pros Cons
One-off licence fee Really steep learning curve
Great forum and support
Open-source
User-contributed plugins

SeekBeak

SeekBeek is something I came across when asking for advice for my 360 photography in one of the Facebook groups I’m a part of, and I’m so happy I did. The creator and owner of SeekBeak are really engaged with his community and answers most questions personally. The community is small, but growing and the support is second to none. SeekBeak itself took me totally by surprise. The ease of use, the customisation and the low price were all huge positive factors for me. I’ve used the two-week free tour available and have got some of the best results of any tour provider I’ve used. It offers polygon hotspot shapes, meaning you can create a layer over a part of the image which when clicked, will open up a variety of different things, for interaction and storytelling, this wins hands down.

Whilst not a giant like Matterport, SeekBeak offers unrivalled support. The tour creator is in-browser and all photos get stored on SeekBeaks servers, allowing for quick loading times and ease of mind because you know everything is going to be backed up. For a personal account, you can expect to pay $14 per month which gets you unlimited tours and photo uploads and for a business account, the price rises to $49 per month. Little added features like a QR code generator and shortcode make this tour provider perfect for use with clients as it’s so easy to share.

Pros Cons
Great support NONE!
Simple to use
Good price
Highly customisable

Summary

There are many more 360 tour providers out there and I’ve only gone through 5, but I hoped to have offered a range of different tours for different suitabilities. Panolens is a great lightweight system that requires some Javascript knowledge to get to work, whilst Matterport is a real heavy hitter which comes with the prestige of the name and along with it, a hefty price tag. Depending on what you want, will ultimately depend on what you choose to use.

My two recommendations are SeekBeak and KR Pano. KR Pano is truly the ultimate when it comes to customisation and with an absolute army of geeks adding functionality to it, there’s nothing it can’t do. However, if you’re looking for a smooth experience where everything is hosted for you and the interface is easy and streamlined, you can’t beat SeekBeak.

QR Codes

What times we live in. QR codes have gone from being something pretty fiddly that is a nuisance to use to becoming something that we see and need to scan every time we walk into somewhere new (track and trace anyone?)

Now the world is moving towards a new digital age, ushered in faster than we thought due to covid, QR codes are something we’ve all had to get used to.

As it turns out, QR codes are a fantastic way to allow people to view your content quickly. They don’t have to copy a webpage down, type anything out, photograph your card for later etc… All they have to do is to point their camera on their phone at the QR code and click the link that appears. Simple!

QR codes are so great because of their versatility. As mentioned before, we use them to check into locations, we can use them instead of physical menus, have our profiles linked to them or, as I saw the other day, just have a picture of a dog with a moustache linked to a QR code.

When designing my business card, I’ve decided that it was simpler and, in my eyes, more impressive, to have a QR code on the back with a small slogan, instead of trying to cramp everything onto the back of the card. The fact that QR codes work in any colour (provided the background has a high contrast) means that, for a designer, the options are limitless.

Some websites even provide you with different styles of QR codes to choose from. Ones with rounder edges, ones with logos in the middle and more ‘traditionally’ looking ones. There is a great deal of many websites that provide you with QR codes, but InDesign also has an inbuilt feature that you can use to link to your published work.

All you have to do to access the QR maker on InDesign is navigate to the menu then click object. On the submenu, click ‘Generate QR code’. From there, pick what type you want and then insert it into your document. You can choose colours, choose to update your code and many other things from within InDesign.

My favourite thing about InDesign is that if it links to a website, you can update and change the website and providing the URL doesn’t change, the code will always link to the most updated version of the site. A clear advantage over having anything in print.

Infographics

Infographics are a great way to present information and can be used in nearly all aspects of society, from school to business meetings. It helps breaks up the monotomy of date in a fun and visual way.

To make my infographic, I first decided on what it was that I wanted to talk about which was easy enough. I have a big thing for space and had been learning about a star called Betleguise recently so decided to make it about that.

I then decided what kind of layout I wanted, portrait or landscape, square, thin and long or fat and short. I opted for a long and thin layout as my vision was to have a rocket ship heading towards the star, with the star at the top and the rocket at the bottom.

For the background, I used the gradient tool in PaintShop to graduate from a. lighter colour to a darker colour (like when you leave earth to go to space), and then used a scatter painter brush to add effects to it.

The line that goes from the rocket to the star is modelled on what a light sabre looks like because of space.

My Font

Desigining a Font is much easier than I expected, although a good font takes time and hardwork and many follow specific mathmatical structures.

For my font, I used indesign, a tool that I’m still getting used too. This powerful application is great though and as I’ve got more comfortable using it, I’ve found making my font easier.

I decided that my font was going to be kina abstract as well as being relatively simple in that I chose to only use straight lines.

The font is based on an equalitrial triangle, as I think this is the best shape for reasons unknown. Each letter began life as a series of triangles. I slowly changed their size, added more triangles as needed, and eventually subtracted lines from the sides of the triangles that I didn’t need. The end result is something that I’m pretty happy with. Here is some of what I’ve been working on…

The Cost of Fashion: More Than Money

The 2020’s are proving  to be one of the most environmentally decisive decades that humanity has ever faced. The reality of climate change can no longer be ignored, and its impact is  felt across the globe, from stronger hurricanes in America, biblical rainfall in Europe, long-lasting dry spells for much of Africa and Asia and raging forest fires in Australia. Nobody is immune from these effects, but it is only a small part of the world that is responsible for the majority of the damage.

At the same time, the impact of documentaries such as 2014’s  Cowspiracy and it’s sister documentary Seaspiracy (2021) , have successfully focused the public’s attention on the environmental impact of the food industry. These documentaries are brilliant at bringing attention to the fact that our individual choices have a real impact on the environment. We can help the combined effort to reduce carbon emissions and destruction of natural resources by simply choosing different things to eat. 

The Facts – Environment 

Most people know that fashion is ‘bad’ for the environment, but how many people know the true cost of their fashion choices? The fashion industry is the second most polluting industry on the planet, second only to oil manufacturing, and accounts for 10% of all global emissions. That’s more than all planes and ship emissions combined. On average, a single European consumer will contribute 645kg of Co2 per year in their clothes purchases alone. 

Many clothes are manufactured in developing nations where clean water is often a scarce resource.  Yet manufacturing a cotton t-shirt, t takes 2,700 litres of water,  the equivalent of what one person would consume in two and half years. Much of this water will be used in the cotton-growing process, combined with fertilisers and other chemicals that reduce pests; the rest will be used to wash and dye the fabric. These chemical compounds run off the cotton fields and find their way into the drinking water and ecosystem. These developing nations lack the political power and economic resilience to put hard regulations on industries that many people depend on for their livelihoods. Even more shocking is that of all the clothes imported to Europe, only around 1% of those thrown away end up being recycled. The rest are either sent to landfill or burnt at a rate of 1 truckload per second. 

Fast Fashion – Human Cost

In the ‘70s and  ‘80s, clothing brands used to release two seasonal lines per year;  in 2021 brands are releasing lines and sublines at an average rate of just under one per week. This constant churning out of textiles and clothes means that consumers have ever more choice whilst cheap overseas production costs keep prices low. . Industrial disasters  such as the 2013 Dkaka garment factory collapse, where 1,134 lost their lives due to poor working conditions, are not uncommon, but rarely make headlines in western countries. The cheap cost of clothing is paid for by poor working conditions, cheap labour, and a reduction in the quality of clothing people buy. This lack of quality creates a feedback loop, whereby after several washes, clothing loses its shape or colour, and people are forced to buy even more. In the UK, there are laws to protect workers:maximum hours, minimum wage, a right to safe working conditions – rights that more often than not are not enjoyed by the people producing the clothes on our backs. 

A Generation Apart

Susan Squire, 43 from Lichfield who works in Higher Education  grew up in the ‘80s and ‘90s before fast fashion took off. She recalls being a teenager, window shopping for clothes that she knew she wouldn’t be able to afford without some serious saving. “Levis were the thing to be seen in. But it wasn’t something that you could pop into a shop and get, especially when you lived off pocket money! I saved up for around 2 months for a pair when I was 16 and then lived in them.” 

She compares her experience to shopping to what she sees today: “You go into shops like H&M, and some of the clothes look really good for the price, but the material is second class…” “What really shocks me is how cheap everything is – clothes cost so much less now. 30 years ago a top from a high street chain was usually around $30. The same item today would cost the same or less – someone, somewhere is paying the price for that  I try to only buy things I really like and will get wear out of and I don’t mind paying more for quality, but the high street is geared towards cheap and disposable. Things aren’t made with a view to lasting more than one season and people don’t care because it’s cheap and easily replaced.  Since 1980, yearly global emissions have nearly doubled, going from 19.7billion tonnes to 36.4 billion tonnes, and 350,000 tonnes of clothing gets sent to landfill each year in the UK alone. (Source: https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-greenhouse-gas-emissions)

NHS Nurse Poppy Taylor, 26 from Bloxwich is concerned about the environmental impact of fast fashion:  “I know things are bad, I eat less meat and try to  be more conscious with my shopping choices.” However, sometimes cheap and convenient wins out: “If it’s a big night out, then I’ll go into somewhere like Topshop and find a nice black dress. It’s cheap and looks nice, so I don’t mind that I’ll only get one use out of it.  I don’t throw things away very often. I always advertise the clothes online or if they don’t sell, I donate them to charity and it goes on to have another life”. Yet 25% of clothes donated to charity in the UK get sent to landfill.  A further 40% – 50% are  exported to developing nations and their thriving second-hand clothing markets. Ghana is one such country that receives Britain’s second-hand clothes, but the poor quality of clothing not made to last means that 40% is unsellable and sent straight to landfill.

What Can You Do?

There are a number of things consumers can do to reduce the environmental impact of your fashion choices. Charity shops have peaked in recent years, with 11,000 outlets  on the highstreets of Britain. The benefits of shopping in charity shops are enormous. Discounted designer garments are often found and are usually of great quality. This means that somebody could potentially cherish a charity shop find for years to come whilst helping support charities focusing on  causes such as homelessness, poverty and domestic violence. They also break the cycle of fast fashion by taking a step away from it. Accountant Jack O’Grady, 27, Cannock, says that he can’t remember the last time he bought new clothes and yet he’s constantly told he dresses really well, “Charity shops are great because you get to choose your own style. There’s only one of each item, so you know the chances of seeing someone wearing the same shirt as you in a club are pretty low. That actually used to happen a lot when I shopped at Topman and Primark.” 

Another great way to reduce the impact clothing choices have on the environment is to upcycle and mend clothes. With so many tutorials online for free, information has never been easier to access. Whilst some people may throw clothes that have been torn into the rubbish, it’s becoming more fashionable to make them into something new and unique. Instagram page @recycle_store_prague has over 10,000 followers. They take worn and tarnished clothes and make them into something wearable again.

Other ways include buying locally made clothes or even making your own clothes – an investment in a sewing machine and some youtube videos are all you need to get started.  Commit to buying fewer clothes and to wearing them more. The phrase “Buy cheap, buy twice” comes to mind.

As  individuals, the environmental challenges we face as a planet can feel overwhelming  and the actions we take may feel like they have little consequence. But it is important to remember that every purchase you make is a vote for that company. Shop ethically, vote with your wallet where you can, and you will already be contributing to the change you want to see in the world. 

“Be the change you want to see” Ghandi

Sources:

https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-greenhouse-gas-emissionshttps://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/633143/EPRS_BRI(2019)633143_EN.pdf

https://www.itv.com/news/2020-02-14/how-the-uk-s-fast-fashion-habits-are-polluting-a-country-halfway-around-the-world

Digital Typography

Typography says everything you need to know about a brand. Next to the logo, it’s perhaps one of the most important decisions a brand can take as it will be one of the main ways a brand communicates with its customers.

A strong brand identity relies on careful thought and practice. A brand will usually have different fonts for different things, one for headers, another for text, another for quotes and maybe another for subheadings etc…

Sans Serif vs Serif


Fonts fall into two distinct categories with many other subcategories. These are serif and sans-serif.
Serifs are the little additional bits you get on the letters, such as The Times Headline. Those tine bits that decorate the letter, they’re serifs.
Sans is Latin for without, so naturally, sans serif, is a type without serif.

The use cases for these types of font vary. When reading font on a screen, it’s clearer to see letters without the serifs, allowing for better readability is key when using small screens.

Serifs are used to convey weight and grandeur, especially when used in big titles. If you look at brands that want to convey a sense of traditionalism, they’ll often use serifs as sans serif are relatively new to the scene. Conversely, more modern brands who want a cleaner look will often vouch for the sans serif.

Font Weight

Another thing to consider is the font-weight. Not all fonts have all weights, but most will have some. Something we’re all familiar with is the bold type, used by many to highlight certain words in a text and easy to use when in a word document. Weight can also go the other way though, making something lighter means to thin words out rather than have them heavy